Inversion of Control (IoC) with JSF


Power of containers

Flash back to the early 2000s and this article would be focused on POJOs and how they are transforming the way we organize our logic. But luckily, its 2015 and we don’t need concern ourselves with managing the state of our objects when developing server-side applications. Most likely you are using a version of inversion of control already in your application without knowing it.

Below is a simple example of JSF 2.2 using CDI for bean injection.

public class userProfile {

   public String username;

   public String getUsername() {
      return username;

   public void setUsername(String username) {
      this.username = username;

To understand the key concepts associated with IoC, consider the above example. The annotation @SessionScoped is providing a length of time for this container managed class to hang around. By definition a session scoped bean maintains its state across more than one JSF view. Since this is the user that is logged onto the site, this bean must be accessible for the duration of them browsing the application. CDI has implemented the definition of a session scoped bean using IoC facets.

There are 3 core key facets of IoC.

  • Manages constructor injection of managed objects – The developer does not need to explicitly instantiate the object. The container would use a default constructor to invoke the object. It should be noted that overriding the default constructor in IoC is possible given unique situations.
  • Dependency Handling – Certain objects can depend on each other to function. The container must have the logic to handle cyclical dependencies.
  • Life cycle and Configuration – Customization of the lifecycle must be provided through annotation or configuration (xml).

Inversion of control (IoC) is a concept that has been implemented in various containers/frameworks such as Spring, JSF, Google Guice, or PicoContainer. These frameworks provide the abilities similar to the above example. Using a framework eliminates the need to write large amounts of boilerplate code. For example; Writing a class to handle application, session, and view scoped logic.

What would it be like without IoC?

Simple answer is… a large headache. Imagine you have a web application. You have to manage a single class that is used by the application. Lets call this our applicationClazz. Now when each new user access the application we need to store there current application context. This user context would have to be stored in our applicationClazz. Then to add functionality, lets assume the site has a login page and stores information in a loginClazz. This login page is specific to each individual user context. So for each user that is using the application, the applicationClazz would have to maintain a map of all the loginClazz’s and maintain an association to the current user context. To make things even more complicated consider how difficult it would become to clean up and managing this application map if you had 20, 50, or 100 classes on your application that had different lifecycles. This is why we use IoC, to do all our heavy lifting.

CDI or Managed Property with JSF?

Prior to JSF 2.0 the annotation @ManagedProperty was widely used. Now mostly @Named is used which is context dependency injection (CDI). Both have support similar life cycles.

The following are a list of the most common CDI scopes used, there duration, and a example use case.

Session Scoped – User’s interaction lasts across multiple HTTP requests. Often used to store a logged in users information for the duration of there time on the site.

Request Scoped – User’s interaction lasts across a single HTTP request. This scope would be best suited for pages that require little to no ajax/form interaction. An example simple example would be a page that displays the date / time. If a ajax request were implemented to refresh the content. Since it is request scoped, a new bean would be created for each ajax request.

Application Scoped – Contents are shared across all users interacting with the web application. Let’s assume you have a dropdown list that will always have the same values no matter the user. The best solution would be to put those values into a application scoped bean so that they are alway sin memory, improving performance.

A Short Summary

The most important thing to take away from this article is; IoC is your friend. It does a lot of the heavy lifting managing classes. CDI give you the tools to quickly create applications using sesssion, request, and application scoped beans. Without it much of your time would be spent managing lifecycles.